The Genus Coffea
For the interested coffee lover, it is not insignificant to deal a little with the botany of coffee. This will give you an overview of what kind of plant coffee is, its growing conditions and the requirements for cultivating coffee. For this purpose, the coffee tree must first be classified botanically. Natural science uses a system that groups and classifies groups.
For coffee, this looks like this:
- Group: Phanerogams ( seeds or flowering plants)
- Subgroup: Angiosperms (angiosperms)
- Class: Dicotyledons (Dicotyledons)
- Subclass: Sympetals (Verwachsenblumenblättrige)
- Family: Rubiaceae (bedstraw family)
- Genus: Coffea (Coffee)
- Species: e.g.: Coffea Arabica - Coffea Robusta two of the best known types of coffee
- Subspecies (varieties):
- for C. Arabica e.g.: Bourbon, Mocha, Tipica
- for C. Canephora e.g.: Robusta
Coffee is a cultivated plant, so it is mainly grown on plantations. Wild coffee (known as heirloom) is mainly found in its native Ethiopia and in the Congo region. The classification of the species is mainly important for determining the taste characteristics of the coffee.
In the following, we will focus on the best known:
Arabica (Coffea Arabica)
Higher altitudes (1000-2000m)
Delicate plant, high demands on soil and climate.
Faster maturity (9 months)
15-25°C / Coffea Arabica needs moderate climate
Low: 0,8 to 1,5%
15-17% / Higher percentage leads to a smoother texture
6-9% / Arabica is the "sweeter" coffee bean
The typical shape of the Arabica bean is oval, rather flat and with an S-shaped cut in the middle.
Noble, refined taste.
More pronounced flavor, fine acidity.
Robusta (Coffea Canephora)
Lower altitudes (0-700m)
Resistant to disease, heat and humidity.
Slower maturity (10-11 months)
20-30°C / Coffea Canephora thrives under higher temperatures
1,7 to 3,5%
10-12% / Lower percentage makes thick and stable cream with italian espresso blends
3-7% / Low sugar leads to a more bitter taste
The Robusta bean is rather small, round, has a pole tip and a straight cut.
Strong flavor with full body and pronounced earthy notes.
Usually robusta is more bitter than Arabica.